Strategy for Chemistry Optional:-
Civil services examination these days have become one of toughest examination, looking at the level of competition involved in this examination one can qualify this through proper planning & management simply hard-work cannot guarantee your success in this exam. First step in the proper planning is right selection of optional. In my opinion optional subject should be chosen on the basis of one’s interest, scoring pattern, availability of study material, & expert guidance.
Secret of Scoring Maximum marks:-
A detail analysis of chemistry syllabus and pattern of recent year questions reveals that chemistry is a one of scoring subject in CSE-mains examination with minimum effort: focused approach, selection of books with understanding & Proper guidance is key for the scoring 280 plus marks.
How to prepare for mains Exam:-
Over all chemistry syllabus is divided in two papers. First paper includes physical. Chemistry & Part of Inorganic chemistry while second paper include organic chemistry and spectroscopy.
First paper is mathematical as well as theoretical. For physical chemistry part one required good understanding & proper presentation ability to secure good marks. Minimum efforts for preparation of this paper can be achieved by dividing this subject in to three parts.
Static physical chemistry:- Liquid state, Gaseous state, Thermodynamics & Phase equilibria.
Dynamic Physical chemistry:- Electrochemistry, Chemical kinetics,Surface Chemistry and Photochemistry
Structural physical chemistry:– Atomic structure, Chemical bonding & Solid state.
To minimize the effort of preparation, students must study these topic together Because they are interlinked topics. To explain this thermodynamic includes properties of gases and phase equilibriums is an application of thermodynamics if sequence of study in broken then students must require more time as compared to sequential study.
An overall question from physical chemistry includes mathematical derivation, numericals (now a day a percentage increasing) and also theoretical principle of physical chemistry. Remember your answer must be concise, comprehensive, and clear, in my language triple C(CCC) is key of success for good score in this section.
All the assumptions, proper figure/ diagram, through analysis, along with practical application must be included in your answer. To explain this I take one example.
Like –“Discuss the principle of polarograpy.
your answer must include -1) It is application of irreversible electrochemistry. II – Different Type of polarizations. III –Explain concentration polarization. IV – Give proper diagram V- Derive the mathematical relation between. Diffusion current & E1/2Such a clear representation can provide you 80% marks.
Second part of this paper is Inorganic chemistry which contribute 1/3rd weightage. Inorganic chemistry is chemistry of facts, theoretical principle and structural identification. First step in preparation of this is selection of good books followed by preparation of comprehensive notes, writing ability with sequential representation of facts is key of scoring good marks in this section.
Paper II –
Paper II is organic chemistry with spectroscopy for the purpose of preparation this paper can be divided in three sections.
General organic Chemistry:- Aromaticity, Reaction Mechanism including Pericyclic reaction.
Named reaction, Photochemistry, Reagent & polymer.
the same minimum effort to expertise this paper one must follow this sequence because basic of general organic chemistry become facts of synthetics organic chemistry. To elaborate this, reaction mechanism is completely applied to study any named reaction or any application of reagent. A good command on reaction mechanism minimizes your time in study of named reaction & synthetic reagent. Organic Chemistry is more scoring as compared to any other branch of chemistry overall organic chemistry depends upon three words of English i.e. WHAT, HOW & WHY a student must prepare this paper accordingly, to elaborate this, take example discuss product (s) of this reaction.
In this question we have to identify these two products now. If one is major the other is minor it must be stated very clearly & suppose A is major product then why it is major product it must be explained clearly.
Now dear students whenever your approach any Organic question reduce this on these three word and answer accordingly this approach will provide you to manage time in this paper and also provide a precise and concise answer.
It is another branch of this paper having nearly 1/3rd weightage 150 plus score in this paper depend upon score in this section. This section is completely analytical in which students have to memorize several spectroscopy data. My first advise in go through more than one book and make a comprehensive notes along with computation of data. Then starts practicing the problem. Concise & compact answer with analysis of each & every spectroscopy data given in questions is only key of achieving good marks in this paper.
Paper – I
Atomic Structure-08 Hours
Chemical Bonding–13 Hours
Solid State–08 Hours
Liquid State–03 Hours
Gaseous State –04 Hours
Phase Equilibrium –06 Hours
Chemical Kinetics–08 Hours
Surface Chemistry –03 Hours
Photochemistry –03 Hours
f-block –03 Hours
Coordination Compounds –12 Hours
P –block Chemistry –03 Hours
Phase Test 1 – Atomic Structure + Chemical Bonding + Solid State
Phase Test 2 – Liquid State + Gaseous State + Thermodynamics
Phase Test 3 – Phase Equilibrium + Electrochemistry + Chemical Kinetics
Phase Test 4 – Surface Chemistry + Photochemistry + f-block
Phase Test 5 – Coordination Compounds + P –block Chemistry
Paper – II
Reactions Mechanism–45 Hours
Named Reaction–10 Hours
Pericyclic Reaction–06 Hours
Phase Test 1 - GOC and Aromaticity
Phase Test 2 – Reaction mechanism and name reactions
Phase Test 3 – Named Reaction + Reagents
Phase Test 4 – Pericyclic Reaction + Photochemistry
Phase Test 5 – Spectroscopy + Polymers
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DST brings news of fellowship hikeThe Central Government has enhanced fellowship of Ph.D students & other research personnel enrolled in Science and Technology (S&T) with effect from January 1, 2019. The hike in fellowship will directly benefit over 60,000 Research Fellows in S&T areas including Physical and Chemical Sciences, Engineering, Mathematical Sciences, Agricultural Sciences, Life Sciences, Pharmacy and so on. It will also provide a template to the States to consider increase in their fellowship rates. Fellowship of the Junior Research Fellows in the first two years of Ph.D programme is increased from the current rate of Rs.25,000/- to Rs.31,000/- per month. Similarly, in the remaining tenure of Ph.D, Senior Research Fellow will get Rs. 35,000/- per month instead of the present Rs.28,000/- per month. Further, there is substantial 30-35% enhancement in the financial rewards for the scientists involved in the R&D projects as Research Associates. The top bracket of Research Associateship is fixed at Rs.54,000/-. All the research fellows are also entitled to HRA as per Central Government norms. Congratulating research scholars, Union Science & Technology Minister, Dr. Harsh Vardhan said that Ph.D scholars, working in science and technology, are the most significant contributors to the knowledge base of the country for its industrial competitiveness, academic vibrancy and technology led innovations. Emphasizing on the commitment of the government Dr. Vardhan said that improving the value of Ph.D research cannot be a one-time exercise but requires constant input and efforts which the Government is fully committed to undertake.Government has ensured that this empowering mechanism is uniformly applicable across all the fellowship granting Ministries, Departments, Agencies and Academic and Government R&D Organizations of the country. Science & Technology is a fast moving area in which a dynamic and holistic vision is required to secure the future of the nation. For the first time, the Government has also recommended a set of strong financial and academic incentives to enhance and recognize the performance of our research fellows who are the most significant contributors to the knowledge base of the country for its industrial competitiveness, academic vibrancy and technology led innovations. This will be a performance based addition to the fellowship. An Empowered Inter-Ministerial Committee has been constituted to periodically examine all the fellowship matters that have a bearing on enhancing the value, quality and experience of doctoral research, including the quantum of fellowship. One of the recommendations is to involve Ph.D students in undergraduate teaching and managing research infrastructure during their doctoral research. This will not only widen their scope of training but also enhance their career prospects.www.dst.gov.in/news/revision-emoluments-and-guidelines-service-conditions-research-personnel-enga... ... See MoreSee Less
Strategy to Prepare for GATE Exam 2019 for Chemistry aspirants. Before reading further on Gate exam strategy, aspirants must be aware ofEligibility Criteria in GATE. Step 1: Have complete information about GATE Exam ,GATE exam is of three hours. It consists of 65 Questions (Out of which 35 Questions are of 2 Marks and 30 Questions are of 1 Mark). So total exam is of 100 Marks.The question paper consists of two types of Question:1. Multiple Choice Questions (In this 4 options are given and you have to choose one).2. Numerical Answer Type QuestionsThere will be 2/3rd negative marking in 2 marks Questions and 1/3rd negative marking in 1 Mark Questions (Applicable only for MCQ’s) whereas there is no negative marking in Numerical Answer type Questions.Step 2: Know the Syllabus & Weightage of each subject.Go through the complete syllabus at least once before starting your preparation.Match your knowledge with the GATE exam syllabus and plan your preparation with known subjects.Highlight the important topics in the syllabus based on previous year GATE Papers and focus more on these topics during the course of your preparation.Step 3: Choose Good Books & Study Materials for GATE preparation.Selection of appropriate and concise study Material is very important before starting Preparing for the GATE Exam .Read at least one book apart from the study Material which is provided by your institution and your class notes.Nowadays the whole package is available online in the form of video lectures, course materials PDF, so you can pursue best study material.You can also refer the books that you have followed during undergraduate course. Step 4 : Tips to study smartly during preparation.Analyze the important topics and pattern of Questions from previous year Question papers.After studying a subject, practice previous year Questions for that particular subject which will help you to analyze your preparation and also boost your confidence.Prepare each topic in three steps :Understand the Concept.Practice Related Questions.Revise Regularly.Most of the questions in GATE exam are conceptual & numerical, so you must try to improve your solving ability & time management to score a good rank.Step 5 : Plan your GATE preparationTo crack GATE Exam prepare a plan for 3 to 9 months.The plan should include Completion of course, Practice and Mock Tests, Revision.It is a good idea to make a time table and formulate your daily tasks. Once you have set daily, weekly and monthly targets, you will see better results for the same amount of effort.Step 6 : Prepare the study plan to complete the gate Exam syllabus.First step in the preparation is to start with easy subject and important one. Toppers suggestion is to begin with mathematics and one basic technical subject.Segregate whole subject into small topics and prepare topic-wise.After completing a subject, make short notes for that subject which should include Definitions, important formulas etc. This will help you at the time of revision.Practice previous year GATE exam Questions after completing each subject.Clear all your doubts during your preparation.Identify the weak areas while practicing quizzes/tests and try to revise and practice those topics. Step 7 : Gate exam 2017 Revision Plan.It is not just sufficient enough to prepare revision notes, but also to revise them regularly.Read the revision notes on a weekly basis to recall the concepts of prepared subjects.Each time you revise the same topic/subject, your revision time will reduce to recall the concepts.Step 8 : Mock Tests and Practice TestsYou can practice the mock tests in two ways. One is self-practice on daily basis, and other is attempting online mock tests.Practice the mock tests to improve the performance. Performance depends on how much time devoted to answer each question and how many questions are answered correctly.Step 9 : Revision, Test Series and Practice at the last stageLast 30 days should be allocated to revision and giving Practice tests.Practice more tests, identify the weaker topics in each test and revise them.Join all India Test Series so that you can analyse your level before the actual exam and with the help of it you can work on your weak areas.Practice at least 2 tests every day in the month of January.Step 10 : Last minute strategy for GATE Exam .You are advised not to read any new topic in during last days.Focus on revising the concepts and important Questions which you have marked during your preparation.Keep your mind relaxed and take proper sleep before the exam. This will help you in recollecting things during exam hours.Be ready with your examination admit card and know your center before the exam day. ... See MoreSee Less
4 weeks ago
Wishing you all a very happy 70th #RepublicDay. Let us all pledge to practice the provisions enshrined in our Constitution and adopted on this day 69 years ago, to make the dream of the constitution makers come true of a happy, peaceful and sovereign INDIA.Jai Hind. 🇮🇳 ... See MoreSee Less
How to write answers? Part-1 for paper-1
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1 month ago
#Inductive_EffectThe electron cloud in a σ-bond between two unlike atoms is not uniform and is slightly displaced towards the more electronegative of the two atoms. This causes a permanent state of bond polarization, where the more electronegative atom has a slight negative charge (δ–) and the other atom has a slight positive charge (δ+). If the electronegative atom is then joined to a chain of atoms, usually carbon, the positive charge is relayed to the other atoms in the chain. This is the electron-withdrawing inductive effect, also known as the -I effect. Some groups, such as the alkyl group, are less electron-withdrawing than hydrogen and are therefore considered as electron-releasing. This is electron releasing character and is indicated by the +I effect. In short, alkyl groups tend to give electrons, leading to induction effect.As the induced change in polarity is less than the original polarity, the inductive effect rapidly dies out and is significant only over a short distance. Moreover, the inductive effect is permanent but feeble since it involves the shift of strongly held σ-bond electrons and other stronger factors may overshadow this effect.from image :A covalent single bond is made up of two paired electrons. But in cases when the atoms forming the bond differ in electronegativity (electronegative atoms love electrons) it results in a ‘polarized’ bond (which means the bonded electrons are shifted towards the more electronegative atom). So a C-N bond in CH3NH2 (methylamine) would be polarized as follows:δ+C—Nδ-, where δ indicates partial charge, not full shift of charge like an ionic bond. So what basically happens is N pulls the bonded electrons towards it leaving the C slightly positive or electron deficient. Now if this C-N bond is a part of a bigger chain like in C3H3-C2H2-C1H2-NH2, then due to this effect, the C next to the N is slightly positive charged. Being positive (electron deficient) it wants more electrons so it pulls the bonded pair of electrons from the C next to it (C2), which in turn becomes slightly positively charged as a result. Now the chain electron distribution looks like:-C-Cδδ+-Cδ+-Nδ-, where δδ+ means less positively charged than δ+. This relay of charge is called Inductive (I) effect. Since this case involves pulling of electrons which start the whole thing, it is termed –I effect. We can have +I effect as well which is illustrated as follows:The (CH3)2-CH group also known as the isopropyl group is electron pushing; all alkyl groups can be considered to be electron donating. There is another effect called Hyperconjugation which has a role to play sometimes in the +I effect of alkyl groups, which we will discuss later. So C2 has excess electron density due to the electron pushing of the isopropyl group next to it. C2 having excess electrons push them to C1 making it partially negatively charged too. This effect does not carry beyond 2-3 carbon atoms.The following list would be helpful for determining the magnitude of inductive effects in different molecules:Decreasing order of -I effect of these groups when attached to a molecule:R3N+ > NO2 > CN > F > Cl > OH > OCH3 > Br > I > -CH=CH2Decreasing order of +I effect of these groups when attached to a molecule:-O (due to O’s lone pair of electrons) > (CH3)3C- > (CH3)2CH- > CH3CH2- > CH3- ... See MoreSee Less
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